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The Water Pump, For Example
- May 28, 2018 -

A centrifugal pump

1. Working principle of centrifugal pump

Pump start before the pump first inflow tube filling with water, the water pump after the operation, the high-speed rotating impeller and the centrifugal force, under the action of the water in the impeller passage was thrown around, pressed into the volute, impeller entrance to form a vacuum, pools of water along the suction pipe in the outside world under the atmospheric pressure inhaled added to this space. The incoming water is then dumped by the impeller through the volute into the outlet pipe. Thus, if the impeller of centrifugal pump keeps rotating, it can continuously absorb and press water, and water can be continuously lifted from low to high or far. In conclusion, centrifugal pump is called centrifugal pump because it lifts water to a high position under the action of centrifugal force generated by the high-speed rotation of the impeller.

2. General characteristics of centrifugal pump

(1) water along the centrifugal pump flow direction is along the axial suction impeller, perpendicular to the axial flow, namely the in and out of each other becomes 90 ° in the direction of flow.

(2) due to rely on imported form vacuum suction impeller centrifugal pump, so before starting to pump and suction tube perfusion in water, or use the vacuum pump suction, to form a vacuum exhaust air, and the pump shell and the suction pipe must be strictly seal, shall not leak, otherwise not form a vacuum, also can't absorb water.

(3) absolutely can't be formed due to the impeller import vacuum, so centrifugal pump suction height is not more than 10 meters, coupled with the flow of the suction piping to bring down the loss, actually allow installation height (pump axis is apart from the height of the suction surface) is far less than 10 meters. If the installation is too high, it will not absorb water. In addition, because the mountain area is lower than the plain atmospheric pressure, the installation height of the same water pump in the mountain area, especially in the high mountain area, should be reduced, otherwise, the water cannot be sucked up.

Axial flow pump

Working principle and characteristics of axial flow pump

1. Working principle of axial flow pump

The working principle of axial flow pump is different from that of centrifugal pump. The lifting force of the axial pump blade on water when rotating can push water from below to above.

The blades of axial-flow pumps are generally immersed in the suction water tank. Because the impeller rotates at a high speed, under the lifting force generated by the blade, water is continuously pushed upward to make water flow out of the outlet pipe. As the impeller rotates, the water is continuously pushed up.

2. General characteristics of axial flow pump

(1) the direction of water flowing through the axial flow pump is the axial suction and axial outflow of the impeller, so it is called the axial flow pump.

(2) low head (1-13 meters), large flow and high efficiency, suitable for drainage and irrigation in plains, lakes and river areas.

(3) no irrigation is required before starting, and the operation is simple.

Mixed flow pump

1. Working principle of mixed flow pump

As a result of the mixed flow pump impeller shape between centrifugal pump impeller, and axial flow pump impeller, as a result, the working principle of mixed flow pump there are both centrifugal and lift, the combined effect of on, water in outflow impeller and shaft of a certain Angle, through the volute chamber and the water pipeline for higher ground.

2. General characteristics of mixed flow pump

(1) compared with centrifugal pump, the head of mixed flow pump is lower and the flow rate is larger. Compared with axial flow pump, the head is higher and the flow rate is lower. It is suitable for drainage and irrigation in plain area and lake area.

(2) water is drawn in and out of the mixed flow pump at a certain Angle along the flow direction of the mixed flow pump and the spindle of the vane wheel.

A common agricultural pump

A centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump models, variety specifications and their variation products are the most in agricultural pumps. According to how much water into the way of the impeller, the impeller, pump body can be self-priming and form a complete set of power and power varieties, such as size, centrifugal pumps are single-stage single-suction centrifugal pump, single stage double suction centrifugal pump, multistage centrifugal pump, self-priming centrifugal pump, motor and diesel engine pump, etc.

1. Single-stage single-suction centrifugal pump

Old pump type BA, B type single-stage single-suction centrifugal pump, in the 80 s, according to the actual circumstance of international standards and drainage and irrigation machinery in our country, to upgrade the centrifugal pump products development, and produces the IB, IQ single-stage centrifugal pump series products, has been listed as a national professional standards and industry standards.

Single-stage single suction centrifugal pump, water from the axial single side into the impeller, the impeller only has one, so called single-stage single suction centrifugal pump. Its characteristic is, compared with mixed flow pump, axial flow pump, high head, small flow, simple structure, easy to use.

IQ type single-stage single-suction centrifugal pump (also called light small centrifugal pump) is for the national conditions and meet the user has simple structure, light weight, low price, good performance and convenient requirements and design, a total of 84 kinds of products, points to three derived series, 413 specifications.

(1) the performance of pump diameter range 50-200 mm, 12.5 ~ 400 cubic meters/flow, the lift 8 ~ 125 meters, power for diesel engine straight league, belt drive, motor straight league, 1.1 ~ 110 kw power, speed of 1450 ~ 2900 r/min.

(2) the structure light small axial suction centrifugal pump for single-stage single-suction suspension type centrifugal pump, the pump body after open the door, export is located in the center, back cover for the embedded type, bearing body with the pump body direct connection, below the foot is located in the pump body, pump bearing lubrication in butter, shaft seal is divided into soft packing, mechanical seal, rubber oil seal. The impeller is closed, and the drive is divided into coupling drive and belt drive. Pump impeller steering: from the direction of pump inlet, the impeller steering is clockwise, when the pump and diesel engine are directly connected, it is counterclockwise. The pump outlet can be equipped with manual pump, which can remove the bottom valve, reduce hydraulic loss, and make the pump self-suction.

2. Single-stage dual suction centrifugal pump

It is a single-stage double-suction centrifugal pump with water inlet from both sides of the impeller, because the pump cover and pump body are assembled by horizontal joints, also known as horizontal medium-open centrifugal pump. Compared with single-stage single-suction centrifugal pump, high efficiency, large flow, high head. But the volume is large, relatively bulky, generally used for fixed operations. It is applicable to irrigation areas of moderate area in hilly and plateau, as well as factories, mines and urban water supply and drainage.

Single-stage double-suction centrifugal pump with S, Sh, SA, SLA several models, the difference between S and Sh type is that, when looking from the drive S type pump is clockwise, Sh type for counterclockwise. SLA type is vertical single - stage double - suction centrifugal pump.

The s-type pump has a capacity of 160 ~ 18000 m3 / h, a lift of 12 ~ 125 m, a inlet diameter of 150 ~ 1400 mm, a speed of 2950, 1450, 970, 730, 585, 485 and 360 RPM.

(1) the D type pump performance range 6.3 ~ 720 cubic meters/flow, the lift 16 ~ 600 meters, water diameter: 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 125 mm, 50 ~ 125 mm type pump for high speed 2950 r/min, 150 ~ 200 mm type pump rotating speed is 1480 RPM.

(2) structure type D multi-stage centrifugal pump is horizontal multi-stage (grade 2 ~ 12), impeller is single suction, and pump body is segmented. When the first impeller is double suction, it is represented by DS, when two rotating speeds are simultaneously specified, the low speed is represented by DA, and the multi-stage centrifugal pump for boiler feed water is represented by DG.

3. Self-priming centrifugal pump

Self-priming pump is a single-stage single-stage self-priming centrifugal pump, which is called self-priming centrifugal pump. Compared with ordinary centrifugal pumps, there are significant differences in the pump body structure: first, the pump inlet position is increased, and sometimes the suction valve is installed; Second, a gas-water separation chamber is set on the outlet side.

The self-priming pump outside the pump is provided with a self-priming device in addition to the pump, such as vortex pump, water ring vacuum pump, jet pump and manual pump.

Self-priming pump, compared with common centrifugal pump has a compact structure, the use of simple operation, not only saves the trouble before starting to fill a large number of water diversion, also leaves out the low pressure pipe valve, reduce the water resistance, increase the water pump, but compared with common centrifugal pump efficiency with the specifications of the lower 3% ~ 5%. The self - priming pump is mainly used in small - scale sprinkler unit and pipeline irrigation unit.

Submersible pumps

Maglev submersible pumps it achieved a major breakthrough in the submersible electric pump field in the world, effectively solve the shortcomings of traditional submersible pumps: such as low conversion efficiency, high power consumption, limited head, bearing wear, frequent maintenance, etc. It is widely used in water supply and drainage, irrigation and water supply in plateau and mountain areas.

Maglev submersible pump with its unique patented technology has changed the manufacturing process of submersible electric pump, the conversion efficiency has reached a shocking new level, creating great energy conservation and consumption reduction benefits.

Maglev submersible electric pump solves the restriction problem of world axial force in the field of submersible pump, submersible electric pump lift of a breakthrough, fill in the high head (single head design to thousands of meters) and large flow rate (high load) of the submersible electric pump market blank; The head and flow curve tend to flatten out. Its conversion efficiency, single - machine maximum head are world - leading position.

Maglev submersible electric pump is a new generation of submersible pumps, it implements the vertical magnetic levitation (efficient) under different conditions, do not wear, use and repair cycle time by several times, eliminating frequent preventive maintenance work, tens of thousands of hours can run continuously, save maintenance and maintenance costs.

Magnetic levitation submersible pump has passed the national laboratory, shandong province pump product quality testing center testing. Test data proves that the maglev submersible electric pump conversion efficiency than the traditional submersible pumps, users use contrast, combined with the experiment data and field further to prove its high efficiency and energy saving, the conversion efficiency, single head, leading the world's leading and high load, large flow, free maintenance, long life and other characteristics.

Submersible blowdown pump

Submersible blowdown pump

High polymer composite material is used

In the process of pump work, flow of water in the pump with the flow and friction on the surface of the pump impeller and the effect of viscosity of water body, the energy dissipations of the pump is mainly used for the friction resistance on the surface of the water meter flow and vortex resistance. The energy consumed by water in the course of flow (loss of water head) is used to overcome internal friction and friction between water and equipment interface. If the surface of pump and impeller is smooth (this kind of surface is called hydraulic smooth surface), the surface resistance is small. Energy consumption is small, on the water pump flow and the impeller spraying polymer composite material, make its surface hydraulic smooth surface, super smooth surface coating surface finish is 20 times after polishing stainless steel, the smooth surface to reduce the pump fluid layer, thus reducing the pump internal turbulence, reduces the volume loss and hydraulic loss within the pump, reduces the power consumption. In order to reduce the loss of water resistance, the hydraulic efficiency of water pump can be improved. The compactness of the coating molecular structure can isolate the contact between air, water and other media and the impeller of water pump, and minimize the electrochemical corrosion and corrosion. In addition, the polymer composite material is a polymer with anti-chemical corrosion, which can improve the anti-corrosion of pump and greatly enhance the anti-erosion and anti-corrosion ability of pump.